The following are some causes of common nail abnormalities.

nail stamping

Beau’s lines

A transverse edge is normally transient and is caused by a brief disturbance of nail development – e.g., extreme diseases, injury or contamination. Beau’s lines show up in all the nails and this can disrupt sns nail system.

Different reasons for transverse edges are psoriasis, paronychia and skin inflammation.

Longitudinal ridging

Causes include peripheral arterial disease, myxoid cysts and rheumatism.

Pitted nails

This is caused by eczema, psoriasis and alopecia areata.

Clubbing

There is an expansion in the delicate tissue of a finger or toe segment with sns colours. This is commonly caused by infective endocarditis, cyanotic congenital heart disease, lung cancer, empyema, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, pneumonic fibrosis, lung malignancy etc.

Koilonychia

  • There is a total dystrophy of the fingernails. They are concave and thinned with raised edges (spoon-moulded nails).
  • It may also be because of iron insufficiency or to injury.

Nail-patella disorder

  • This is inherent nail issue, autosomal dominant inheritance.
  • The patellae and a portion of the nails are missing or rudimentary.

Green nails

These might be caused by pseudomonal disease, which brings about dark  or green discolouration.

Blue nails

It may happen as a reaction of specific drugs, for example, mepacrine, hydroxyurea or minocyclline.

Dark nails

  • These might be an element of post-radiation, pseudomonas infection, vitamin B12 deficiency and Peutz-Jeghers disorder.
  • Dark streaks may demonstrate a junctional melanocytic naevus or harmful melanoma.
  • Dark/purple discolouration happens with a subungual haematoma. This ought to slowly develop distally and there is frequently (sometimes) a backgroundof post trauma.

Leukonychia (white nail)

This might be inherent or because of a minor injury, kidney disease or hypoalbuminaemia in chronic liver illness, Beau’s lines (as above, which might be white), contagious disease or lymphoma.

Yellow nail disorder

Yellow nail disorder indicated by moderate developing, unnecessarily bended and thickened yellow nails which are related with fringe lymphoedema and exudative pleural radiations.

Yellow or yellow/white nails without thickening or onycholysis

Causes include:

  • Nicotine recoloring from smoking (dark colored/yellow).
  • Injuries, especially from inadequately fitted footwear, especially people the enormous toenails.
  • Dermatophyte or parasitic disease.
  • Drugs including antibiotic medications, isoniazid, indomentacin, trimethoprim and captopril.

Ingrowing toenails.

  • A typical issue coming about because of different causes – eg, poorly fitted shoes, pressure from other digits, abnormally shaped nails, trauma or poorly trimmed nails.
  • Likewise called onychocryptosis.
  • It regularly gives torment but may advance to contamination and difficulty when strolling.
  • Treatment alternatives are total excision of the nails, antibiotics, inserting cotton wool at the nail edges, hot water soaks and cutting nail square. A Cochrane audit found that surgical medicines were more viable than non-surgical treatments.

Onychogryphosis

  • When the nail hardens and thickens and gets curved in the process with sns dip nails.
  • Can be seen on the biggest toes in old people, common with foot injury and is caused by poorly fitted shoes. It is also caused by poor supply of blood.
  • Also known as ram’s horn nails.

Published by jsoltman